pea.сочиюрист.рф - the best free porn videos on internet, % free. Computed properties can be used to do quick calculations of properties that are displayed in the view. These calculations will be cached and will only update when needed. Antonio Pinto is a senior advisor for the pre-salt at Petrobras. He has 33 years of experience in the oil and gas industry, and specializes in reservoir engineering and development of offshore oil fields. The second leg of this stool, Cascading Style Sheets, supports three different styles you can add to a document. Cloud Functions & Deployment The Wolfram Language is deeply integrated with the cloud, providing seamless persistent storage of code and data, cloud computation, and instant external deployment through active documents, APIs, forms, apps, etc.
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- TWA Forum Series: New Ideas Applied to New Places. Part II: Deep Offshore Field Development
Introduction to Computed Properties in Vue.js
The oil and gas industry has always been intrinsically linked to technology, from exploration using 3D seismic and drilling and production from thousands of meters below the sea assisted by remote-controlled robots, to the development of a wide variety of products made from hydrocarbons, ranging from antibiotics to jet fuel. Geologist Parke A.
Dickey summarized this relationship accurately when he stated,. We usually find gas in new places with old ideas.
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Sometimes, also, we find gas in an old place with a new idea, but we seldom find much gas in an old place with an old idea. Several times in the past we have thought that we were running out of gas, whereas actually we were only running out of ideas. Antonio Pinto is a senior advisor for the pre-salt at Petrobras. He has 33 years of experience in the oil and gas industry, and specializes in reservoir engineering and development of offshore oil fields.
He has held positions as the coordinator of the Marlim reservoirs in the Campos Basin, technological program coordinator for offshore heavy oil, reservoir technology manager, and manager of technical skills in the pre-salt Santos Basin.
He has published more than 60 technical articles.
Celso Branco joined Petrobras in as a petroleum engineer. Since , he has worked in the pre-salt team as a reservoir engineer. The most important driver is to use a variety of technologies to define and implement a robust data acquisition plan to reduce the uncertainties related to the reservoir and fluids.
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For instance, to sanction a project in the Santos Basin pre-salt 2, m below sea level , it is necessary to have high-definition seismic surveys, as well as the complete drilling, logging, and testing of at least two wells and, whenever possible, the deployment of an extended well test.
These actions are paramount for good reservoir FEL Front-end loading , which is the most critical factor for the success of the project.
In terms of the production system, special attention must be given to flexibility and robustness. Spare wells, convertible wells, phased implementation, and planning of future drainage strategy changes are, among others, effective drivers for the success of a deep offshore project. In case of development in an entirely new area, a production or injection pilot is highly recommended to gather information about the reservoir and potential recovery. The incorporation of knowledge from analogous reservoirs must also be considered.
I would say that the main challenges and limitations have to do with development costs. In the current oil price scenario it is mandatory to cut costs, mainly by developing win-win partnerships with equipment and service supply companies, improving well construction techniques through new technologies or process improvement, and improving subsea systems with innovative solutions for equipment and installation processes.
On the revenue side, it is important to develop or deploy technologies that allow for the enhancement of well production potential and the capacity production and injection of the processing plant. Besides the technical aspects, there are many other items that affect the economic feasibility of a deepwater project.
The fiscal regime, government take, local content requirements, and long lead items supply are among the most important issues. Several variables affect the decision, such as constraints to oil production and refining, forecasts of product demand and prices, development of competitive alternative energy sources, society pressure based on CO 2 emissions, and so on. The integrated field development approach has several advantages such as equipment standardization, continuous improvement, modularization, reducing the time between project sanction and first oil, and so on.
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These opportunities may result in higher revenues, lower costs, and improved health, safety, and environment control. Typically deep offshore fields have well rates which are usually much higher than reservoirs in shallow water if not, the project itself would not be economic.
That is, a small number of wells are typically enough to fully utilize a processing plant, which improves the economic results. What role will new technologies, reservoir management, or even digital oil fields, play in the future? All of these technologies are fundamental to reduce operational costs and improve recovery, leading to better economic results, and will continue to be implemented in the field.
Many improvements have already been made, including virtual reality to improve training , intelligent completions, real-time reservoir surveillance, and production system monitoring, among others, allowing cost reduction and better safety conditions. Many lessons have been learned in the ultradeepwater pre-salt developments, not only in the technical aspects, but also in project management.
A rigorous project evaluation and sanction process, which only proceeded if the project was economic under lower-price scenarios, led to a very strict project selection. Deep offshore developments also require a skilled, experienced, and multidisciplinary team working together in the same physical space. The balance between appraisal costs, which are normally very high, and the risks that can be either assumed or mitigated by flexibility, has to be carefully considered as well.
Special attention must be given to the interfaces between the disciplines on the team, to avoid solutions that provide a local improvement instead of a global optimization.
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Brazil is a pioneer and leader in deep offshore developments and technologies. How do you see this being expanded into other plays abroad, or further applied in Brazil? Brazil has a long history of producing from deepwater environments.
Since , Petrobras has being developing deepwater fields such as Marlim and Albacora in the Campos Basin, among others.
The knowledge acquired in the Campos, mainly in subsea and well construction technology, was essential to proceed with the pre-salt development. This cumulative knowledge can be applied in Brazil and abroad. Naturally, the particularities of each area have to be taken into account; however, the technical experience acquired in Brazil can be applied elsewhere, mainly in these areas:.
Well construction including drilling through thick salt layers, drilling heterogeneous carbonates, with vugs and carts.
Subsea systems buoy-supporting risers, steel lazy wave risers, WAG manifolds, flexible risers adequate for fluids with contaminants, and standardized Christmas trees.
High-capacity gas processing plants, including CO 2 separation and reinjection in the reservoir. In Part I of the Series Robello Samuel, chief technical advisor in the drilling division at Halliburton, speaks on the topic of automated and remote drilling. OTC Brasil will be held October Call for papers for the conference is now open and paper proposals are being accepted. Submission deadline is 8 March Source: Petrobras presalt page.
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Last name:. Sign In. Toggle navigation. Getty Images. Dickey summarized this relationship accurately when he stated, We usually find gas in new places with old ideas.
What are the key drivers for planning deep offshore field developments? What are the current challenges and limitations? Do you foresee continued development of deep offshore fields in the future? What lessons have been learned from deep offshore field development?
TWA Forum Series: New Ideas Applied to New Places. Part II: Deep Offshore Field Development
Naturally, the particularities of each area have to be taken into account; however, the technical experience acquired in Brazil can be applied elsewhere, mainly in these areas: Well construction including drilling through thick salt layers, drilling heterogeneous carbonates, with vugs and carts Intelligent completion deployment and operation Water alternating gas WAG recovery method in deep water Subsea systems buoy-supporting risers, steel lazy wave risers, WAG manifolds, flexible risers adequate for fluids with contaminants, and standardized Christmas trees High-capacity gas processing plants, including CO 2 separation and reinjection in the reservoir.
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